4. FIG. (Conductance was determined by linear fit of I-V relation over the full ramp sequence. 2 shows an example of a prior art erase voltage envelope Ve which may cause the "bumps" such as indicated in the playback characteristic of FIG. The invention is particularly useful for ramping magnetic recording bias or erase signals by providing a relatively slow slope within the non-linear region of the magnetic medium characteristic while providing a relatively steep slope in the linear region to reduce recording of disturbing "pop" signals. As noted previously, in the preferred embodiment the latter values are selected R1=R2. However, in some applications, for example when recording audio signals in video tape recorders, it is also required to obtain an optimum erase or bias signal level within a relatively short time corresponding to one video field or frame interval, that is, within 30 milliseconds or less to facilitate editing. 4 the switches 73, 74 are controlled by voltage comparators implemented by the previously described differential operational amplifiers 77, 78 whose operation is described below with reference to the characteristics of FIG. Assignors: AMPEX SYSTEMS CORPORATION, A DE CORPORATION, INFORMATION STORAGE BASED ON RELATIVE MOVEMENT BETWEEN RECORD CARRIER AND TRANSDUCER, Recording by magnetisation or demagnetisation of a record carrier; Reproducing by magnetic means; Record carriers therefor, Recording, reproducing, or erasing methods; Read, write or erase circuits therefor, Generating pulses having essentially a finite slope or stepped portions, Generating pulses having essentially a finite slope or stepped portions having stepped portions, e.g. 6. The respective outputs of voltage comparators 77, 78 are connected via lines 75, 76 each to a control input of a respective switch 73, 74 as described previously. staircase waveform by repetitive charge or discharge of a capacitor, analogue generators, King Fahd University Of Petroleum & Minerals, The United States Of America As Represented By The United States Department Of Energy, AMPEX CORPORATION REDWOOD CITY CA A CORP OF CA, ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST. successively increasing or decreasing in predetermined increments the slope of said ramp voltage, respectively, in response to detected predetermined magnitudes obtained by said respectively increasing or decreasing ramp signal. ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST. On sites where the banks are too steep to access by a ramp, stairs are an appropriate launch option. The characteristic Ve comprises a linear "ramp-up" portion r, followed by a constant optimum voltage envelope portion V3 and a linear "ramp-down" portion r' as it is known in the art. The circuit of claim 7 wherein each said voltage divider means comprises resistor means having respective selected resistance values between said first and second terminal and said output to obtain a predetermined ratio of said first reference voltage as an output voltage from said divider means corresponding to one said predetermined magnitude of said ramp signal to be detected. 364,735, filed concurrently on Apr. ;ASSIGNOR:AMPEX CORPORATION A CORPORATION OF CALIFORNIA;REEL/FRAME:006334/0371, ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:AMPEX SYSTEMS CORPORATION, A DE CORPORATION;REEL/FRAME:007456/0224, PATENT EXPIRED DUE TO NONPAYMENT OF MAINTENANCE FEES UNDER 37 CFR 1.362, Generator of drive signals for transistors connected in a half-bridge configuration, Charge balanced ramp with improved signal linearity, Current injected ramp with reduced recovery time background of the invention, Digital ramp generator with output power level controller, Voltage-controlled dual-slope square and triangular waveform generator, Storage device having write signal with multiple-slope data transition, CIRCUIT ARRANGEMENT FOR RECOVERY OF DATA CONTAINING IN BINARY DATA SIGNALS, High energy ignition generator, particularly for gas turbine, Oscillator having output frequency linearly related to resistance, High precision triangular waveform generator, Improvements in electrical signal function generators, Compander with control signal logarithmically related to the instantaneous rms value of the input signal, Dynamic noise filter having means for varying cutoff point, Compressors, expanders and noise reduction systems, Companding noise reduction system with simultaneous encode and decode, Rotary head type magnetic video recording and reproducing system, Compander noise reduction method and apparatus, Playback system utilizing variable delay and speed control means for flutter and wowcompensation, Automatic gain control system for optical disk unit, Information recording device for video and sound, Dynamic equalizer circuits having a light dependent cell for producing a relatively constant apparent loudness effect, Signal processing for digital optical disc players, High density information recording and reproducing system, Disc recording/reproducing apparatus having two constant linear velocities with controlled step switching between the two, Lapse for failure to pay maintenance fees, Expired due to failure to pay maintenance fee, Information on status: patent discontinuation. Our results showed significant effect of HT, handling directions and slope on compression and shear force of the lumbar spine (p < 0.001). How Does it Work Cont. FIG. For alterations (when the curb ramp was altered after January 26, 1991), the slope must not exceed 10 percent for a 6-inch rise or 12.5 percent for a 3-inch rise. A portion of the circuit of FIG. 3 for just one selected value of Vref, for example value Ve in FIG. As an example, the present invention may be utilized in combination with a D.C. controlled adjustable ramp signal generator circuit and method described in the cross-referenced copending patent application which is being hereby incorporated by reference. The I-V curves obtained with the voltage-ramp method (Figures 2Ea,b) all deviate <1.3% from the correct modeled conductance, without artificial decay. That is, any error introduced by a component value during the integrate cycle will be cancelled out during the de-integrate phase. The invention is particularly useful for ramping magnetic recording bias or erase signals by providing a relatively slow slope within the non-linear region of the magnetic medium characteristic while providing a relatively steep slope in the linear region to reduce recording of disturbing "pop" … A circuit for generating a ramp signal, comprising: a source for providing a first D.C. reference voltage; an integrating means having an inverting input coupled to receive a positive or negative D.C. input step voltage for responsively coupling said inverting input to said D.C. reference voltage or ground, respectively, having a non-inverting input coupled to receive a predetermined ratio of said D.C. reference voltage and having an output coupled to provide said ramp signal in response to said D.C. input step voltage; said integrating means being coupled to receive said first D.C. reference voltage and to limit a maximum value of said ramp signal provided thereby to a value determined by said D.C. reference voltage; said integrating means having a series input resistor coupled between an input terminal for receiving said input step voltage and said inverting input and having a feedback capacitor coupled between said output and said inverting input of said integrating means and having a predetermined number of further input resistors and switch means respectively, each further input resistor being coupled in parallel to said series input resistor via one said switch means; and. For a mild slope, such as the 1-in-20 slope required for a wheelchair ramp, a 3-in. It is seen that the circuit of FIG. Cross reference is hereby made to a related patent application Ser. The remaining portion r2 of the linearly increasing ramp signal r subsequently passes through the linear portion of the tape characteristic and reaches value V3 at time T3. Briefly, that prior art circuit (not shown) has an integrating operational amplifier for providing a desired linearly ramped output voltage in response to an input voltage step. The present invention relates to a method of measuring a subject's physical strength and an apparatus therefor in which the oxygen uptake based on 75% HRmax (75% of the patient's maximum heart rate) is estimated so that the physical strength of the subject based on oxygen uptake can be evaluated over a wide range of … 6. Further resistors 71, 72 are connected via respective switches 73, 74 in parallel to the input resistor 23 of integrator 40. 5. In the dual-slope converter, an integrator circuit is driven positive and negative in alternating cycles to ramp down and then up, rather than being reset to 0 volts at the end of every cycle. 2, since both occur within the non-linear portion of the magnetic tape characteristic, as described previously with respect to FIG. To best preserve the shoreline environment, stabilization methods should follow these basic principles: 1. 3 is an example of a ramp signal characteristic in accordance with the present invention. built after January 26, 1991), the running slope of the ramp run must not exceed 8.33 percent. If you aren’t sure, just describe the job to the concrete dispatcher, and they will tell you what slump to use. 4. For example, a TDC might output the time of arrival for each incoming pulse. Ramps Stairs Elevated Perfect for gradually sloped banks. at which the above-indicated voltage levels are obtained. The circuit of claim 2 wherein for said increasing ramp signal said switches are controlled to connect in said first succession said respective further resistors to said series input resistor and for said decreasing ramp signal said switches are controlled to disconnect in said second succession said respective further resistors from said series input resistor. The "ramp-up" and "ramp-down" periods T0 to T3 and T4 to T7 provided by that integrator 40 are equal when the respective values R1 and R2 of resistors 15, 16 are selected equal as it is the case in the preferred embodiment of FIG. Switch 7 responsively connects the inverting input 22 of amplifier 40 via input resistor 23 to voltage Vref or ground, respectively. The slope-area method consists of using the slope of the water surface in a uniform reach of channel and the average cross-sectional area of that reach to give a rate of discharge. The method of claim 15 wherein said first D.C. reference voltage is adjustable. In audio magnetic recording it is necessary to provide a "ramp-up" as well as a "ramp-down" signal of a certain duration or length to avoid a disturbing "pop" recorded on the magnetic medium as it is well known in the art. When the ramp gradient increased, the L4/5 compression forces increased in both pushing and pulling (p < 0.001) Shear forces increased in pulling and decreased in pushing in all tasks. As it is known, the longer the duration of the ramp signal within that non-linear region the larger will be the wavelength of the "bumps" and if a sufficiently long wavelength could be provided it may fall below the audible bandwidth or below the operating range of an associated playback amplifier. An output of the filter circuit 30 is in turn connected via line 31 to an input of a drive amplifier 32 whose output is coupled to an input of an erase or bias recording magnetic head circuit 34, as it is well known in the art, for example from the above-indicated Catalog, and as it is described in more detail in the cross-referenced patent application. When an adjustable reference voltage source such as shown at 10 in FIG. Consequently, following each edit, an audible "pop" remains on the tape. 5. 2 by a hatched area. The dual-slope integration type of A/D conversion is a very popular method for digital voltmeter applications. The key advantage of this architecture over the single-slope is that the final conversion result is insensitive to errors in the component values. The limited ramped output signal from the integrator is then chopped by a solid state switch at a desired bias or erase signal frequency, and thereafter filtered to obtain a ramped high frequency sine wave signal. • Waste is placed along the sides of existing hill slope. Be alert for the seal plates, rough pavement, and high manholes or valve-box covers. the ramp offset and slope. An exterior location is preferred for ramps. 2. FIG. 16. A voltage limiter connected to the integrator limits the output voltage therefrom to a value determined by a master bias level commonly applied as a D.C. reference voltage to all the recording channels. The slope compensation ramp is generated from R/C components, making the ramp nonlinear. The shear force also increased when the slope of the ramp was increased only in pulling (p < 0.01). “If the slope begins with a sharp edge, the boom and bucket may be lowered over the side to control the machine and prevent a quick tip over the edge,” says Lumpkins. This angle, together with the inter-ramp height and the required ramp width impose an overall slope angle of 42°. This study aimed to investigate the effects of handling types (HTs) and slope on lumbar spinal load during moving a cart on a ramp. You will find it easier to understand a new analytical method when you can see its relationship to other similar methods. FIG. ;ASSIGNOR:FAWKES, JOHN S.;REEL/FRAME:003984/0936, Owner name: The incrementally sloping ramp characteristic of FIG. 20, 1984, entitled "D.C. Its bias and erase signal generator circuit is described in VPR-2 Video Production Recorder, Catalog No. Thus, a D.C. voltage source 10 is provided, for example utilizing a 12 V D.C. power supply and a potentiometer 5 connected thereto and having a voltage follower buffer amplifier 3 connected to the output of potentiometer 5. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. A circuit for generating an adjustable ramp signal, comprising: said integrating means having a series input resistor couled betwen an input terminal for receiving said input step voltage and said inverting input and having a feedback capacitor coupled between said output and said inverting input of said integrating means and having a predetermined number of further input resistors and switch means respectively, each further input resistor being coupled in parallel to said series input resistor via one said switch means; and. These bumps remain recorded even after a new information signal is recorded on the tape over these bumps, for example during edits. As a result, the slope of the linear ramp signal obtained at output 27 increases as shown by increment 1 in FIG. It is a further object of this invention to provide a circuit and method for generating an incrementally changing ramp of a recording bias or erase signal having a relatively gentle slope within a non-linear region of the magnetic medium characterstics and which ramp signal has a relatively steep slope outside that region. The voltage Vref on line 11 is applied to Vcc source voltage input of amplifier 40 which voltage sets the limit for a maximum output signal value on line 27 from amplifier 40. Field of the Invention . 10. PATENT EXPIRED DUE TO NONPAYMENT OF MAINTENANCE FEES UNDER 37 CFR 1.362. The key advantage of this architecture over the single-slope is that the final conversion result is insensitive to errors in the component values. It has distinct advantages that include high immunity to component tolerances, component drifts, and noise. 3. For steeper slopes, you will have to go to a 1-in. 2. When relatively high optimum erase or bias signal levels are to be obtained, within the above-indicated short time, the resulting fast rate of change of the signal ramp causes a corresponding rapid flux change on the recording medium which in turn may cause second harmonic distortion of the flux within the non-linear region of the magnetic tape characteristics. 4 is changed in predetermined linear increments. A circuit for generating an adjustable ramp signal, comprising; an adjustable D.C. reference voltage source having an output coupled to provide a desired adjustable D.C. reference voltage value; a first resistive voltage divider means having a first terminal coupled to said output of said adjustable D.C. reference voltage source having a second, opposite terminal grounded, and having a third, output terminal provided between said first and second terminal, respectively; an integrating means having an inverting input coupled to receive a postive or negative D.C. input step voltage for responsibly coupling said inverting input to said adjustable first D.C. reference voltage or ground, respectively, having a non-inverting input coupled to said output terminal of said voltage divider means for receiving a predetermined ratio of said adjustable first D.C. reference voltage value and having an output coupled to provide said ramp signal in response to said D.C. input step voltage; said integrating means having a series input resistor coupled between an input terminal for receiving said input step voltage and said inverting input and a feedback capacitor coupled between said output and said inverting input of said integrating means and having a predetermined number of further input resistors and switch means respectively, each further input resistor being coupled in parallel to said series input resistor via one said switch means; and saod corciot further comprising: a predetermined number of voltage comparators coupled to detect in succession predetermined magnitudes of said ramp signal and voltage divider means, each voltage comparator having a first non-inverting input coupled to said output of said integrating means and a second inverting input coupled to an output of said voltage divider means, respectively, each said voltage divider means having a first terminal coupled to an output of said adjustable D.C. reference source and having a second, opposite terminal grounded, and wherein an output of each said voltage comparator is coupled to a control input of one said switch means. The inter-ramp angle non-linear region of the ramp was raised ( p < 0.01 ) geometry... Count corresponding to those on lines 75, 76 of FIG for DETAILS ) (