By the late 20th century, in most countries the death rate for infants under one year of age had decreased until it was scarcely more than a 10th of the rate in the 1930s. Among the genes involved are those important in the formation of synaptic circuits that facilitate communication between different areas of the brain (Gauthier et al., 2011). Drug toxicity of importance at one stage of development may be of no concern at another; for example, the commonly used antibiotic tetracycline is best avoided in treatment of the child younger than age 10 because it is deposited in teeth, in which enamel is also being deposited, and stains them. These factors include exposure to pollutants, such as plant emissions and mercury, urban versus rural residence, and vitamin D deficiency (Kinney, Barch, Chayka, Napoleon, & Munir, 2009). Diseases of the fetus may derive directly from disorders of the mother or may be caused by drugs administered to her. Socioeconomic factors—such as better maternal nutrition and obstetrical care and improved housing, water supplies, and sewage disposal—have been of prime importance in this decline, together with better hygiene at home, safer infant feeding techniques, and widespread immunization against common infectious diseases. Diego likely has attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Infectious disorders are prevalent and remain a leading cause of death, although individual illnesses are often mild and of minor consequence. ADHD occurs in about 5% of children (APA, 2013). Thus, it is of no concern if a 12-month-old infant is unable to walk alone, although some infants are able to do so at nine months of age. The previous edition of the DSM included a diagnosis of Asperger’s disorder, generally recognized as a less severe form of autistic disorder; individuals diagnosed with Asperger’s disorder were described as having average or high intelligence and a strong vocabulary, but exhibiting impairments in social interaction and social communication, such as talking only about their special interests (Wing, Gould, & Gillberg, 2011). Most of the disorders we have discussed so far are typically diagnosed in adulthood, although they can and sometimes do occur during childhood. His teachers believe he is a smart child, but he never finishes anything he starts and is so impulsive that he does not seem to learn much in school. In addition, mental health professionals are now more knowledgeable about autism spectrum disorder and are better equipped to make the diagnosis, even in subtle cases (Novella, 2008). These disorders are usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence, as laid out in the DSM-IV-TR and in the ICD-10. Childhood stress and trauma can have health and life impacts beyond these five types of emotional disorders. Some parents of children with autism mounted a campaign against scientists who refuted the vaccine-autism link. ; Although less common, developmental disorders and psychotic disorders in children can have a lifelong impact on the child and his or her family. Please select which sections you would like to print: While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. In a shocking turn of events, some years later the article was retracted by the journal that had published it after accusations of fraud on the part of the lead researcher. The risk of substance abuse problems appears to be even greater for those with ADHD who also exhibit antisocial tendencies (Marshal & Molina, 2006). Parents and caregivers who would like more information regarding the illnesses and infestations described in this guide or information on how to care for their sick child can The symptoms of this disorder were first described by Hans Hoffman in the 1920s. A recent study found that 29.3% of adults who had been diagnosed with ADHD decades earlier still showed symptoms (Barbaresi et al., 2013). While taking care of his son while his wife was in the hospital giving birth to a second child, Hoffman noticed that the boy had trouble concentrating on his homework, had a short attention span, and had to repeatedly go over easy homework to learn the material (Jellinek & Herzog, 1999). Childhood is a period typified by change, both in the child and in the immediate They also are less well-liked and more often rejected by their peers (Hoza et al., 2005). Children with this disorder show signs of significant disturbances in three main areas: (a) deficits in social interaction, (b) deficits in communication, and (c) repetitive patterns of behavior or interests. Bruno Bettelheim (an Austrian-born American child psychologist who was heavily influenced by Sigmund Freud’s ideas) suggested that a mother’s ambivalent attitudes and her frozen and rigid emotions toward her child were the main causal factors in childhood autism. Because vaccines contain immunogens (substances that fight infections), the investigators examined medical records to see how many immunogens children received to determine if those children who received more immunogens were at greater risk for developing autism spectrum disorder. The hemoglobin level that is of no concern in the three-month-old infant may reflect a serious state of anemia in the older child. Common symptoms occurring in children with these disorders include: defiance of authority figures, angry outbursts, and other antisocial behaviors such as lying and stealing. The outlook for recovery from diseases in children is often better than it is for adults, since the child’s additional capacity of growth may counteract the adverse influences of disease. Omissions? Autism spectrum disorder is probably the most misunderstood and puzzling of the neurodevelopmental disorders. Some individuals with autism spectrum disorder, particularly those with better language and intellectual skills, can live and work independently as adults. Childhood obesity is a serious medical condition that affects children and adolescents. CDD is considered a low-functioning form of autistic spec… Sometimes I’m Anxious, Volume 1 – (A Child… (Klein et al., 2012). ADHD is characterized by a pervasive pattern of inattention and/or hyperactive and impulsive behavior that interferes with normal functioning. The brain? Generally, when we speak about childhood disorders, we are referring to mental and emotional problems that most often occur and are diagnosed when children are school aged or younger. As you might imagine, Bettelheim did not endear himself to a lot of people with this position; incidentally, no scientific evidence exists supporting his claims. Children & neurodevelopmental behavioural intellectual disorders NEURODEVELOPMENTAL BEHAVIORAL INTELLECTUAL DISORDERS Inconsistencies in terminology and definitions European Definition: Neurodevelopmental disorders are disabilities in the functioning of the brain that affect a child’s behaviour, memory or ability to learn In adults, one period may last weeks to years whereas with children an episode may last hours. In recognition of such findings, the DSM-III (published in 1980) included a new disorder: attention deficit disorder with and without hyperactivity, now known as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Genetic and neurobiological factors contribute to the development of ADHD, which can persist well into adulthood and is often associated with poor long-term outcomes. In the general consideration of childhood diseases, a final aspect that merits emphasis is the role of prevention. Frequently, the hyperactive child comes across as noisy and boisterous. Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with the development of more severe symptoms of the disorder (Thakur et al., 2013). The child might engage in stereotyped, repetitive movements (rocking, head-banging, or repeatedly dropping an object and then picking it up), or she might show great distress at small changes in routine or the environment. Other specialized techniques permit examination of the fetus by X-ray and ultrasound, and by electrocardiography and electroencephalography (methods for observing and recording the electrical activity of the heart and the brain, respectively). Importantly, autism spectrum disorder is not the same thing as intellectual disability, although these two conditions are often comorbid. Thus, what might seem like inattention to some parents and teachers could simply reflect exposure to too much technology. Diagnostic techniques have been developed that permit sophisticated examination of the fetus despite its apparent inaccessibility. Definition Definition: Mental Retardation refers to significantly sub-average general intellectual functioning, resulting in or associated with, concurrent impairments in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period. Previously, ADHD was thought to fade away by adolescence. The increases were greatest for older teens (ages 15–17), multiracial and Hispanic children, and children with a primary language other than English. ADHD diagnostic criteria have changed over time. Additionally, as was the case with diet and ADHD in the 1970s, the notion that autism spectrum disorder is caused by vaccinations is appealing to some because it provides a simple explanation for this condition. common childhood diseases so that actions can be taken to decrease the spread of the illness or infestation to others. Repetitive patterns of behavior or interests can be exhibited a number of ways. Burt (2009), in a review of 26 studies, reported that the median rate of concordance for identical twins was .66 (one study reported a rate of .90), whereas the median concordance rate for fraternal twins was .20. Stress-Related Disorders. Fetal blood can be obtained for analysis, and certain techniques permit direct viewing of the fetus. Many obese children become obese adults, especially if one or both parents are obese. In one investigation, 135 adults who had been identified as having ADHD symptoms in the 1970s were contacted decades later and interviewed (Klein et al., 2012). Numerous studies, however, have shown a significant relationship between exposure to nicotine in cigarette smoke during the prenatal period and ADHD (Linnet et al., 2003). Although it is believed by some that autism is triggered by the MMR vaccination, evidence does not support this claim. There is greater awareness of ADHD now than in the past. The most common childhood mental disorders are anxiety disorders, depression, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (). Recall that one of the functions of the frontal lobes is to inhibit our behavior. However, because research has failed to demonstrate that Asperger’s disorder differs qualitatively from autistic disorder, the DSM-5 does not include it, which is prompting concerns among some parents that their children may no longer be eligible for special services (“Asperger’s Syndrome Dropped,” 2012). 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