Overall impression of the effect of copper slag on the strength of concrete. The average composition of primary copper slag corresponds to 30–40 % iron, 35-40% silica, less than 10 % of alumina and calcium oxide and copper content is around 1 %Cu, similar to the ore mined. The strength of concrete can increase with CS content, Figure 4.6(a); The strength of concrete can increase with CS content up to a varying optimum level and then decrease with increasing CS content, but the strength of CS concrete remains higher than that of normal concrete, Figure 4.6(b), or goes below the normal concrete level, Figure 4.6(c); The strength of concrete can decrease with CS content, Figure 4.6(d). The specific gravity varies with iron content, from a low of 2.8 to as high as 3.8. Michigan Department of Transportation Specifications consider reverberatory copper slag to be a conventional coarse and fine aggregate for HMA pavement (Gorai et al., 2003). Rinse thoroughly with water. kuettner.de Aus Ko nv erter -, Anodenschlacke , k upfer - und zinkhaltigen Reststoffen sowie verunreinigten Kupfer- und Messingschrotten w ir … Table 10.8. However, on the whole, the results do support the viewpoint that concrete designed with CS as sand should develop 5–10% higher strength than the corresponding natural sand concrete. However, by adopting the equal consistence design basis, the advantage could have been gained by reducing the water/cement ratio, as in this case the consistence has been shown to improve with increasing CS content. 3. http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)MT-1943-5533.0001159, Copper Slag in Cement Manufacture and as Cementitious Material. The multiple extraction leaching tests indicate … One of the common problems spotted in many of these studies is that the grading of CS sand has not been kept similar to that of the corresponding reference natural sand or vice versa. Major constituents are iron oxide and silicon dioxide with minor amounts of copper, lead, nickel and various non-ferrous metals and oxides. Returning to Table 4.3, where all the data have been deliberately presented in some detail so that the reader can perform his or her own analysis and evaluation and develop the use of this information in designing concrete mixes using CS. The absorption capacity of the material is typically very low (0.13%). contain copper with the content ranging between 0.8 to 5% copper. This is helpful, as it supports the simple and empirical model used to explain the change in strength with increasing CS content. ; Seal, R.R., Characteristics and Environmental Aspects of Slag: A Review. The typical composition of smelting slags is Fe (as FeO, Fe 3 O 4) 30–40%; SiO 2 35–40%; Al 2 O 3 up to 10%; and CaO up to 10%. Due to the agitated state of the bath, the matte and slag are periodically tapped out to- gether through a single taphole to either of two RHF via water cooled copper launders. and silver (0.003%) in the slag composition. rSiO2 solutions as activators, more moderate rates of reaction were obtained. The amorphous content of the copper slags is high, approximately 30%. 33.84% The smelting process in this company is facilitated in the reverberatory furnace with the annual capacity of 60 000 tons of anodic copper. Internationally the described media is manufactured in compliance with ISO 11126-3[1]. It has high friction angle due to a sharp angular shape. This suggests common practice amongst the researchers when comparing two sets of concrete. The blasting media manufactured from copper slag brings less harm to people and environment than sand. Due to the same reasons the granulated slag is usable as a filler and insulating material in house foundations in a cold climate. Although it would be expected that a reduction in water content at a given cement content for equal consistence would lead to strength improvement of the concrete mix, this has not always been realised [Table 4.3(a)]. Mobasher, Devaguptapu, & Arino, 1996; Pavéz et al., 2004, Environmental Impact, Case Studies and Standards and Specifications, Alternative inorganic binders based on alkali-activated metallurgical slags, Sustainable and Nonconventional Construction Materials using Inorganic Bonded Fiber Composites. The obtained trendline suggests that the strength of concrete increases with increasing CS content, up to 20%, and reaches a near-plateau situation of average 13% strength increase for 20 to 50% CS, beyond which the strength begins to decrease, and from 80% CS, it falls below that of the corresponding reference concrete. Analysis of compressive strength data presented in the literature by various studies. The difference between the two methods of production greatly influences its use in PC-based materials, with the quenched granular material having a greater demand than the air-cooled CS. 1.57% Iron (as Fe) : Approx. Copper extraction refers to the methods used to obtain copper from its ores.The conversion of copper consists of a series of physical and electrochemical processes. 200 sieve) in size. Such use was common in areas where smelting was done, including St Helens and Cornwall[2] in England. The product meets the most rigid health and ecological standards. https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Copper_slag&oldid=967311512, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 12 July 2020, at 14:36. For the analysis of the slag composition influence on the copper losses, we used the 24 Ž. Živković / JMM 45 (1) B (2009) 23 - 34. data obtained from the industrial conditions in the Copper Smelter Company – RTB Bor, (Serbia). Effect of Slag Composition Technical slags contain numerous components [FeO-CaO-SiO2 (for non-ferrous metallurgy)]. number of slag samples of varying compositions derived from the use of several copper concentrates indicate poor leachability of the heavy metals and assures long-term stability even in extreme atmospheres. Note ∗: The average data excluded the results of Al-Jabri et al. Copper slag is a by-product of copper extraction by smelting. Copper slag is mainly used for surface blast-cleaning. effect of Slag composition on copper losses to slag. REACH Slags, copper smelting. It is safe to handle copper … Except for three sets of results showing unduly high values [see footnote of Table 4.3(b)], all the data obtained over the period 1987–2015 given in Table 4.3(b) were used in developing Figure 4.7, with a box-and-whisker plot at each CS level created to visualise data distribution and determine outliers. Schematic flow diagram for leaching of copper slag. "The slag contains iron oxides, which can be reduced to iron if the cooled slag is heated to 1,300 degrees Celsius and carbon is added," he explains. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. As refineries draw metal out of copper ore, they produce a large volume of non-metallic dust, soot, and rock. Quenched CS would be expected to outperform air-cooled CS when used as a cement constituent, based on its mineralogical composition and especially its amorphous material content (Chapter 3). Because of the limited data available in the literature for this option, no clear optimum level of CS can be identified in Table 4.3(a), but on average, the use of CS as a sand component gives a 5% increase in strength for CS concrete compared to normal concrete. Upon CS production, the molten slag may either be air-cooled in an ambient environment or rapidly cooled by quenching it in a granulator. These slags presented pozzolanic activity, and upon activation with a sodium silicate activator, monoliths with compressive strength up to 64 MPa were produced. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. Characteristics and utilization of copper slag—a review. The major phases are fayalite with silicates. Specimens cured at 60°C and 90°C, containing 50 wt.% copper slag showed comparable strengths to that obtained by samples with 100 wt.% copper slag. Fine copper slag has reportedly been used in HMA pavements in California and granulated copper slag has been incorporated into asphalt mixes in Georgia to improve stability. Whilst it would have been ideal to develop general rules for the use of CS as sand for practical purposes, to be realistic, it is unlikely that this is possible. Overall, a polynomial regression is obtained, giving a correlation of 0.8087. 77, No. ISO 11126-3:1993 Preparation of steel substrates before application of paints and related products -- Specifications for non-metallic blast-cleaning abrasives -- Part 3: Copper refinery slag: Preparation of Steel Substrates Before Application of Paints and Related Products. The slags cannot be discarded due to the high content of copper and hence they are sent to a milling and flotation plant (Slag Mill Plant) for liberation and recovery of copper. A recent study evaluated the feasibility of activating ancient copper slags from the north of Chile,69 and identified notable differences in the mineralogy and chemical composition depending on the slag source. Table 5: Chemical Properties of Copper Slag S. No. The chemical compositions of copper smelting slag are shown in Table 1. Figure 5.12. Figure 5.11. The slag is a complex mixture of metals, sulphides, silicates and oxides with a glassy amorphous material. During the past two decades attempts have been made by several … Adapted from Piatak, N.M.; Parsons, M.B. In such a scenario, the overall particle packing of the test specimen may change with CS content and this can become the main contributing factor that affects the strength of the resultant concrete. In pre-industrial contexts, copper slags usually reveal complex compositions. Copper slag is used as a building material, formed into blocks. The scientists lead by Prof. Alexandros Charitos have already been able to extract around 50 percent of the iron in this way, and thus verify that the copper slag, in principle, can not only be used in the steel, but also in the glass and mineral fibres industries. Copper slag is just one of many different materials that may be used as abrasive grit. EC number: 266-968-3 | CAS number: 67711-92-6 Slag resulting from the smelting of a heterogeneous mixture of copper and precious metals from primary and secondary sources and plant reverts. Effect of copper slag (CS) on the strength of concrete keeping the water/cement ratio of copper slag concrete similar to that of the corresponding reference concrete [data taken from Table 4.3(b)]. Data from Ahmari, S.; Parameswaran, K.; Zhang, L., Alkali Activation of Copper Mine Tailings and Low-calcium Flash-furnace Copper Smelter Slag. Applications : Blastcleaning of steel and stone/concrete surfaces, removal of mill scale, rust, old paint, dirt etc. Resources, Conservation and Recycling 39 (2003), 299–313. In addition to the copper and iron main components of the system, trace elements like antimony, gallium, germanium, gold, indium, and silver were added in experiments that spanned the temperature range of 1473–1573 K (1200–1300 °C). Numerous houses in the same region are built with a slag insulated foundation.[3]. The number of strength data tabulated in Table 4.3(b) for CS concrete having a water/cement ratio equal to the reference concrete is significantly greater than that in Table 4.3(a) for CS concrete having consistence equal to the reference concrete. 3). 2). However, the few studies evaluating the influence of using ground CS with different production methods on the properties of mortar (Douglas et al., 1986) and concrete (Mohsenian and Sohrabi, 2009a) have produced inconclusive results as shown in Figures 5.11 and 5.12. COMPOSITION / INFORMATION ON INGREDIENTS TRADE NAME Copper Slag CHEMICAL COMPOSITION Copper (as Cu) : Approx. Dumping or disposal of such huge quantities of slag cause environmental and space problems. MineralTech CP Copper Slag Safety Data Sheet Prepared according to Federal Register / Vol. However, the slag tends to be vitreous or “glassy,” which adversely affects its frictional properties (skid resistance), a potential problem if used in pavement surfaces. Data from Chesner, W. H., Collins, R. J., & MacKay, M. H. (1998). 0.009% Zinc (as Zn) : Approx. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Due to rapid cooling, the melt generally consists of a fine grained mixture of different phases (Fig. Figure 7.13. Indeed, this is likely to be the main contributor to the variable trends observed in the strength data provided in the literature, and this can clearly be seen from all the data presented Table 4.3 in two forms, namely the studies where, perhaps prudently, the two sets of mixes, CS mix and the corresponding reference mix without CS, were made to have the same consistence, and these results are presented in Table 4.3(a), and where the water/cement ratio was considered as the prime factor and kept constant, even if the consistence was to vary, and these results are presented in Table 4.3(b). Copper slag is mainly used for surface blast-cleaning. Rate of grit consumption, amount of dust generated, and surface finish quality are some of the variables affected by the choice of grit material. This could have been caused by several factors relating to the mix proportioning, as well as the particle packing of aggregates in both sets of mixes, eliminating the advantage that could be accrued by the use of quenched CS as a cement constituent in the form of enhanced pozzolanic activity. In copper slag-free activated binders an optimal curing temperature of 75°C was identified, while in specimens containing 50–100 wt.% copper slag a higher curing temperature (90°C) yielded the best compressive strengths. Copper slag can be used in concrete production as a partial replacement for sand. The petro-diesel was obtained from local petrochemical company and biodiesel was purchased from biodiesel production company, respectively. ; Seal, R.R., Characteristics and Environmental Aspects of Slag: A Review. Ahmari et al.70 assessed the effect of partially replacing copper slag by copper mine tailings, on the microstructure and mechanical performance of alkali-activated cements produced with these precursors. In this process, a stream of abrasive grains called grit are propelled toward the workpiece. Experimental charges were quenched and prepared in polished mounts. General trends observed are summarised in Figure 4.6 and are described below: Figure 4.6. Typical physical and mechanical properties of copper slag. 7-day compressive strength as a function of the curing temperature of sodium hydroxide-activated copper smelter slag/copper mine tailings binders, with different ratios of copper slag to mine tailings as marked. By its (a) chemical composition, the studied slag can be referred to as a low siliceous product (7.0–14.0% SiO ), which is characterized by an increased content of copper, iron, and nickel. The mineral composition is given in Table II. 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